DocuWatch on Facebook
Art America Britain History Science Societies War Shop
DocuWatch

Eisenhower's Operatives

« Cold War Civil Defense Bulletins 1961

Inside the CIA »

Description

Eisenhower's Operatives

From Wikipedia

Dwight David "Ike" Eisenhower
(October 14, 1890 – March 28, 1969)
was the 34th President of the United States from 1953 until 1961. He had previously been a five-star general in the United States Army during World War II, and served as Supreme Commander of the Allied Forces in Europe; he had responsibility for planning and supervising the invasion of North Africa in Operation Torch in 1942–43 and the successful invasion of France and Germany in 1944–45, from the Western Front. In 1951, he became the first supreme commander of NATO.

In 1953 the Republican's Old Guard presented Eisenhower with a dilemma by insisting he disavow the Yalta Agreements as beyond the constitutional authority of the Executive Branch; however, the death of Joseph Stalin in March 1953 made the matter a practical moot point. At this time Eisenhower gave his Chance for Peace speech in which he attempted, unsuccessfully, to forestall the nuclear arms race with the Soviet Union by suggesting multiple opportunities presented by peaceful uses of nuclear materials. Biographer Stephen Ambrose opined that this was the best speech of Eisenhower's presidency. Nevertheless, the Cold War escalated during his presidency. When Russia successfully tested a hydrogen bomb, Eisenhower, against the advice of Dulles, decided to initiate a disarmament proposal to the Russians. In an attempt to make their refusal more difficult, he proposed that both sides agree to dedicate fissionable material away from weapons toward peaceful uses, such as power generation; this approach was labeled "Atoms for Peace".

The U.N. speech was well received but the Russians never acted upon it, due to an overarching concern for the greater stockpiles of nuclear weapons in the U.S. arsenal. Indeed, Eisenhower embarked upon a greater reliance on the use of nuclear weapons, while reducing conventional forces, and with them the overall defense budget. This approach became known as the "New Look", and was initiated with defense cuts in late 1953. In 1955 American nuclear arms policy became one aimed primarily at arms control as opposed to disarmament. The failure of negotiations over arms until 1955 was due mainly to the refusal of the Russians to permit any sort of inspections. In talks located in London that year, they expressed a willingness to discuss inspections; the tables were then turned on Eisenhower, when he responded with an unwillingness on the part of the U.S. to permit inspections. In May of that year the Russians agreed to sign a treaty giving independence to Austria, and paved the way for a Geneva summit with the U.S., U.K. and France. At the Geneva Conference Eisenhower presented a proposal called "Open Skies to facilitate disarmament, which included plans for Russia and the U.S. to provide mutual access to each other's skies for open surveillance of military infrastructure. Russian leader Nikita Khrushchev dismissed the proposal out of hand.

In 1954, Ike articulated the domino theory in his outlook towards communism in Southeast Asia and also in Central America; he believed that if the communists were allowed to prevail in Vietnam, this would cause a succession of countries to fall to communism, from Laos through Malaysia and Indonesia ultimately to India. Likewise, the fall of Guatemala would end with the fall of neighboring Mexico. That year the loss of North Vietnam to the communists and the rejection of his proposed European Defense Community (EDC) were serious defeats, but he remained optimistic in his opposition to the spread of communism, saying "Long faces don't win wars". As he had threatened the French in their rejection of EDC, he afterwards moved to restore Germany, as a full NATO partner.

His foreign policy was also marked by "the brave new world of CIA-led coups and assassinations." With Eisenhower's leadership and Dulles' direction, CIA activities increased, to resist the spread of communism in poorer countries; the CIA in part deposed the leaders of Iran in Operation Ajax, of Guatemala through Operation Pbsuccess, and possibly the newly independent Republic of the Congo (Léopoldville). In 1954 Ike wanted to increase surveillance inside the Soviet Union. With Dulles' recommendation, he authorized the deployment of thirty Lockheed U-2's at a cost of million. The Eisenhower administration also planned the Bay of Pigs Invasion to overthrow Fidel Castro in Cuba, which John F. Kennedy was left to carry out."

Other videos in channel "Cold War":

1983 - The Brink Of Apocalypse 1983 - The Brink Of Apocalypse A Very British Bomb A Very British Bomb Atomic Attack Atomic Attack
Atomic Explosion Atomic Explosion Baiting the Bear Baiting the Bear
Beating The Bomb Beating The Bomb Brezhnev's kremlin Brezhnev's kremlin Castro's Revolution Castro's Revolution
Chinese Nuclear Testing Film (1966) Chinese Nuclear Testing Film (1966) Cold War Cold War
Cold War 01 - Comrades 1917 - 1945 Cold War 01 - Comrades 1917 - 1945 Cold War 02 - Iron Curtain Cold War 02 - Iron Curtain Cold War 03 - Marshall Plan Cold War 03 - Marshall Plan
Cold War 04 - Berlin 1948 - 1949 Cold War 04 - Berlin 1948 - 1949 Cold War 05 - Korea Cold War 05 - Korea Cold War 06 - Reds 1947 - 1953 Cold War 06 - Reds 1947 - 1953
Cold War 07 - After Stalin - 1953 - 1956 Cold War 07 - After Stalin - 1953 - 1956 Cold War 08 - Sputnik 1949 - 1961 Cold War 08 - Sputnik 1949 - 1961 Cold War 09 - The Wall 1958 - 1963 Cold War 09 - The Wall 1958 - 1963
Cold War 10 - Cuba 1959 - 1962 Cold War 10 - Cuba 1959 - 1962 Cold War 11 - Vietnam 1954-1968 Cold War 11 - Vietnam 1954-1968 Cold War 12 - MAD 1960 - 1972 Cold War 12 - MAD 1960 - 1972
Cold War 13 - Make Love Not War Cold War 13 - Make Love Not War Cold War 14 - Red Spring 1960's Cold War 14 - Red Spring 1960's Cold War 15 - China 1949 - 1972 Cold War 15 - China 1949 - 1972
Cold War 16 - Detente Cold War 16 - Detente Cold War 17 - Good Guys, Bad Guys 1967 - 1978 Cold War 17 - Good Guys, Bad Guys 1967 - 1978 Cold War 18 - Backyard 1954 - 1990 Cold War 18 - Backyard 1954 - 1990
Cold War 19 - Freeze 1977-1981 Cold War 19 - Freeze 1977-1981 Cold War 20 - Soldiers of God 1975-1988 Cold War 20 - Soldiers of God 1975-1988 Cold War 21 - Spies 1944-1994 Cold War 21 - Spies 1944-1994
Cold War 22 - Star Wars 1981-1988 Cold War 22 - Star Wars 1981-1988 Cold War 23 - The Wall Comes Down 1989 Cold War 23 - The Wall Comes Down 1989 Cold War 24 - Conclusions 1989 - 1991 Cold War 24 - Conclusions 1989 - 1991
Cold War Civil Defense Bulletins 1961 Cold War Civil Defense Bulletins 1961 Eisenhower's Operatives Eisenhower's Operatives Inside the CIA Inside the CIA
Khrushchev's Regime Khrushchev's Regime Medical Aspects Of Nuclear Radiation (1950) Medical Aspects Of Nuclear Radiation (1950) Messengers from Moscow Messengers from Moscow
Mr Kennedy and Mr Kruschev Mr Kennedy and Mr Kruschev Nixon's Secrets Nixon's Secrets Operation Blue Jay - 1953 Operation Blue Jay - 1953
Operation Buster Jangle - 1951 Operation Buster Jangle - 1951 Operation Castle Operation Castle Operation Crossroads Operation Crossroads
Operation Dominic - 1962 Operation Dominic - 1962 Operation Greenhouse 1951 Operation Greenhouse 1951 Operation Ivy Operation Ivy
Operation Plumbbob Operation Plumbbob Operation Upshot-Knothole - 1953 Operation Upshot-Knothole - 1953 Rise and Fall of The Berlin Wall Rise and Fall of The Berlin Wall
Starfish Prime Test Starfish Prime Test The Big Lie The Big Lie The Cold War Game - The USA The Cold War Game - The USA
The Cold War Game - The USSR The Cold War Game - The USSR The kennedy Years The kennedy Years The KGB Connections The KGB Connections
The Road To The Wall The Road To The Wall The Strangelove Factor The Strangelove Factor The True Story Of Che Guevara The True Story Of Che Guevara
Threads Threads World's Biggest Bomb World's Biggest Bomb  
Video channels
Videos in this channel
AdSense
Featured
Featured
Featured
Featured
Featured
Featured